italian ire verbs lesson

Italian Ire Verbs Lesson: Regular And Irregular Verbs Under The Third Conjugation

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After learning about the Italian Are Verbs (first conjugation) and those ending in Ere (second conjugation), it’s now time to learn the Italian Ire Verbs. These verbs belong to the third conjugation.

Let’s learn more about them.



Let’s Revise Italian Verbs

If you haven’t already, you can read the lessons on the first and second conjugation here: Italian Are Verbs and Italian Ere Verbs.



impazzire is an italian ire verb

Italian Ire Verbs: Key Things To Know

  1. Ire Verbs belong to the third conjugation of Italian verbs.
  2. Ire Verbs can be both regular and irregular.
  3. There are under 1000 verbs that end in ire, although probably only half of them are heavily used.
  4. Most Ire Verbs take the interfix ISC after the root and before the ending. This only applies to the singular and third plural persons of these modes and tenses – indicative present, subjunctive present, and imperative. 
  5. Some IRE verbs can be used with and without that interfix.



Italian Ire Verbs That Take The ISC Interfix

Here are the verbs that take the -isc between the root and the ending particle -ire. I have included an example in the first person of the indicative present tense, so you can see the infinitive vs the structure with the -isc inserted.

  1. abolire – Io abolisco (I abolish)
  2. agire – Io agisco (I act)
  3. alleggerire – Io alleggerisco (I lighten)
  4. ammonire – Io ammonisco (I warn)
  5. ammorbidire – Io ammorbidisco (I soften)
  6. annuire – Io annuisco (I nod)
  7. appassire – Io appassisco (I wither)
  8. appesantire – Io appesantisco (I weigh down)
  9. appiattire – Io appiattisco (I flatten)
  10. approfondire – Io approfondisco (I deepen)
  11. arricchire – Io arricchisco (I enrich)
  12. bandire – Io bandisco (I banish)
  13. blandire – Io blandisco (I coax)
  14. capire – Io capisco (I understand)
  15. chiarire – Io chiarisco (I clarify)
  16. colpire – Io colpisco (I hit)
  17. concepire – Io concepisco (I conceive)
  18. condire – Io condisco (I season)
  19. contribuire – Io contribuisco (I contribute)
  20. costruire – Io costruisco (I build)
  21. custodire – Io custodisco (I guard)
  22. definire – Io definisco (I define)
  23. demolire – Io demolisco (I demolish)
  24. digerire – Io digerisco (I digest)
  25. diminuire – Io diminuisco (I decrease)
  26. distribuire – Io distribuisco (I distribute)
  27. esaudire – Io esaudisco (I fulfill)
  28. esaurire – Io esaurisco (I exhaust)
  29. esibire – Io esibisco (I exhibit)
  30. esordire – Io esordisco (I begin)
  31. fallire – Io fallisco (I fail)
  32. favorire – Io favorisco (I favor)
  33. ferire – Io ferisco (I wound)
  34. finire – Io finisco (I finish)
  35. fiorire – Io fiorisco (I bloom)
  36. fornire – Io fornisco (I provide)
  37. garantire – Io garantisco (I guarantee)
  38. gestire – Io gestisco (I manage)
  39. gioire – Io gioisco (I rejoice)
  40. gradire – Io gradisco (I enjoy)
  41. guarire – Io guarisco (I heal)
  42. imbandire – Io imbandisco (I set the table)
  43. imbastire – Io imbastisco (I baste)
  44. impazzire – Io impazzisco (I go crazy)
  45. impedire – Io impedisco (I prevent)
  46. inaridire – Io inaridisco (I dry up)
  47. influire – Io influisco (I influence)
  48. ingerire – Io ingiuisco (I ingest)
  49. inserire – Io inserisco (I insert)
  50. interloquire – Io interloquisco (I interlocute)
  51. istituire – Io istituisco (I establish)
  52. istruire – Io istruisco (I instruct)
  53. languire – Io languisco (I languish)
  54. lenire – Io lenisco (I soothe)
  55. marcire – Io marcisco (I rot)
  56. munire – Io munisco (I fortify)
  57. obbedire – Io obbedisco (I obey)
  58. ordire – Io ordisco (I plot)
  59. ostruire – Io ostruisco (I obstruct)
  60. patire – Io patisco (I suffer)
  61. perire – Io perisco (I perish)
  62. poltrire – Io poltrisco (I laze)
  63. preferire – Io preferisco (I prefer)
  64. proibire – Io proibisco (I prohibit)
  65. pulire – Io pulisco (I clean)
  66. punire – Io punisco (I punish)
  67. rapire – Io rapisco (I abduct)
  68. reagire – Io reagisco (I react)
  69. restituire – Io restituisco (I return)
  70. rimpicciolire – Io rimpicciolisco (I shrink)
  71. ringiovanire – Io ringiovanisco (I rejuvenate)
  72. riunire – Io riunisco (I reunite)
  73. sbiadire – Io sbiadisco (I fade)
  74. sbollire – Io sbollisco (I boil away)
  75. scalfire – Io scalfisco (I scar)
  76. scaturire – Io scaturisco (I gush)
  77. schiarire – Io schiarisco (I clarify)
  78. scolpire – Io scolpisco (I sculpt)
  79. seppellire – Io seppellisco (I bury)
  80. sgualcire – Io sgualcisco (I crumple)
  81. smarrire – Io smarrisco (I lose)
  82. smentire – Io smentisco (I deny)
  83. sostituire – Io sostituisco (I substitute)
  84. sparire – Io spariscono (I disappear)
  85. spedire – Io spedisco (I send)
  86. stabilire – Io stabilisco (I establish)
  87. stupire – Io stupisco (I amaze)
  88. subire – Io subisco (I undergo)
  89. suggerire – Io suggerisco (I suggest)
  90. svanire – Io svanisco (I vanish)
  91. tradire – Io tradisco (I betray)
  92. ubbidire – Io ubbidisco (I obey)
  93. unire – Io unisco (I unite)
  94. zittire – Io zittisco (I silence)



coprire is an italian ire verb

Italian IRE VERBS That Do Not Take ISC

Here is a short list of -ire verbs that don’t take the interfix -isc.

  1. aprire – Io apro (I open)
  2. avvertire – Io avverto (I warn)
  3. convertire – Io converto (I convert)
  4. coprire – Io copro (I cover)
  5. divertire – Io diverto (I entertain)
  6. dormire – Io dormo (I sleep)
  7. eseguire – Io eseguo (I execute)
  8. incarnare – Io incarno (I incarnate)
  9. invertire – Io inverto (I invert)
  10. investire – Io investo (I invest)
  11. inseguire – Io inseguo (I chase)
  12. offrire – Io offro (I offer)
  13. partire – Io parto (I leave/depart)
  14. perseguire – Io perseguito (I pursue)
  15. proseguire – Io proseguo (I continue)
  16. riempire – Io riempio (I fill)
  17. seguire – Io seguo (I follow)
  18. sentire – Io sento (I hear/feel)
  19. servire – Io servo (I serve)
  20. sovvertire – Io sovverto (I subvert)
  21. vestire – Io vesto (I dress)



Use These Ire Verbs With & Without ISC

These verbs below can be conjugated in the indicative present, subjunctive present, and imperative with both versions – including -isc and excluding it. However, the first form (aka the one excluding it) is more commonly used.

  1. applaudire – Io applaudo, Io applaudisco (I applaud)
  2. assorbire – Io assorbo, Io assorbisco (I absorb)
  3. inghiottire – Io inghiotto, Io inghiottisco (I swallow)
  4. mentire – Io mento, Io mentisco (I lie)
  5. nutrire – Io nutro, Io nutrisco (I feed/nourish)
  6. sbollire – Io sbollo, Io sbollisco (I boil away)
  7. presentire – Io presento, Io presentisco (I foresee)

PS: don’t confuse io presento (from presentire) with io presento (from presentare, to present).



imbellire is an italian ire verb

Italian Ire Verbs List: The Most Used

Rather than giving you the full list of Italian -ire verbs, I believe it’s much more useful and less overwhelming if I give you the list of the most used.

Ire Verbs Starting with A

Abbellire – to embellish

Abbrustolire – to toast

Abbruttire – to brutalize

Abolire – to abolish

Abortire – to abort

Accanirsi – to persist

Acconsentire – to consent

Accudire – to care for

Acquisire – to acquire

Addolcire – to sweeten

Adibire – to employ

Affluire – to flow

Agire – to act

Alleggerire – to lighten

Allestire – to set up

Allibire – to dismay

Ambire – to aspire

Ammorbidire – to soften

Ammuffire – to mold

Annerire – to blacken

Apparire – to appear

Appassire – to wither

Appensentire – to weigh down

Appiattire – to flatten

Applaudire – to applaud

Approfondire – to deepen

Appuntire – to sharpen

Aprire – to open

Ardire – to dare

Arricchire – to enrich

Arrostire – to roast

Arruginire – to rust

Assalire – to attack

Asserire – to assert

Assorbire – to absorb

Assortire – to assort

Attribuire – to attribute

Autogestire – to self-manage

Avvenire – to happen

Avvertire – to warn

Azzittire – to silence


Starting with B

Bandire – to ban

Benedire – to bless

Bollire – to boil


Ire Verbs Starting with C

Capire – to understand

Censire – to cense

Chiarire – to clarify

Circuire – to circumvent

Colpire – to strike

Comparire – to appear

Compatire – to pity

Concepire – to conceive

Condire – to season

Conferire – to confer

Conferire – to assign

Conseguire – to achieve

Consentire – to consent

Contraddire – to contradict

Contravvenire – to contravene

Contribuire – to contribute

Convenire – to convene

Convertire – to convert

Coprire – to cover

Costituire – to constitute

Costruire – to construct

Custodire – to guard

Cucire – to sew


Starting with D & E

Definire – to define

Demolire – to demolish

Deperire – to perish

Differire – to differ

Dimagrire – to lose weight

Diminuire – to decrease

Dire – to say

Disdire – to cancel

Disobbedire – to disobey

Distribuire – to distribute

Divenire – to become

Divertire – to entertain

Dormire – to sleep

Esaudire – to fulfill

Esaurire – to exhaust

Eseguire – to execute

Esibire – to exhibit

Esordire – to debut


fallire is an italian ire verb

Ire Verbs Starting with F & G

Fallire – to fail

Farcire – to stuff

Favorire – to favor

Ferire – to wound

Finire – to finish

Fiorire – to flourish

Fluire – to flow

Fornire – to supply

Fuggire – to flee

Fuoriuscire – to exit

Garantire – to guarantee

Gestire – to manage

Gioire – to rejoice

Gualcire – to crumple

Guarire – to heal

Guarnire – to garnish


Starting with I

Imbandire – to set the table

Imbellire – to beautify

Imbiondire – to embitter

Imbizzarrire – to bewilder

Imbottire – to stuff

Impadronirsi – to take over

Impartire – to impart

Impaurire – to frighten

Impazientire – to make impatient

Impazzire – to go crazy

Impedire – to prevent

Impoverire – to impoverish

Impreziosire – to embellish

Incuriosire – to arouse curiosity

Indebolire – to weaken

Infastidire – to annoy

Infierire – to rage

Ingelosire – to make jealous

Ingerire – to ingest

Inghiottire – to swallow

Ingiallire – to turn yellow

Innervosire – to make nervous

Inserire – to insert

Interferire – to interfere

Intervenire – to intervene

Intiepidire – to lukewarm

Intimidire – to intimidate

Intristire – to sadden

Intuire – to intuit

Inumidire – to moisten

Invigorire – to invigorate

Irrobustire – to strengthen

Irruginire – to corrode

Istituire – to establish


Ire verbs starting with M, N & O

Maledire – to curse

Mentire – to lie

Morire – to die

Nutrire – to nourish

Obbedire – to obey

Offrire – to offer

Ostruire – to obstruct


Starting with P

Partire – to leave

Partorire – to give birth

Patire – to suffer

Pentirsi – to repent

Percepire – to perceive

Perire – to perish

Perquisire – to search

Perseguire – to pursue

Pervenire – to reach

Predire – to predict

Preferire – to prefer

Premonire – to forewarn

Presentire – to have a premonition

Prestabilire – to pre-establish

Prevenire – to prevent

Proibire – to prohibit

Proseguire – to continue

Provenire – to come from

Pulire – to clean

Punire – to punish


restituire is an italian ire verb that takes the ISC interfix

Starting with R

Rabbrividire – to shiver

Raddolcire – to sweeten

Rapire – to kidnap

Rattristire – to sadden

Recensire – to review

Recepire – to receive

Reperire – to find

Requisire – to requisition

Restituire – to return

Retribuire – to reward

Riaprire – to reopen

Ribadire – to reiterate

Ricoprire – to cover

Ricucire – to sew up

Ridire – to redo

Rifornire – to supply

Rimpicciolire – to shrink

Ringiovanire – to rejuvenate

Rinsavire – to come to one’s senses

Riscoprire – to rediscover

Risentire – to feel again

Ristabilire – to restore

Rivestire – to cover


Ire verbs starting with S

Salire – to climb

Sancire – to sanction

Sbalordire – to astound

Sbiadire – to fade

Sbizzarrirsi – to go wild

Sbollire – to boil

Scandire – to scan

Scaturire – to gush

Schiarire – to lighten

Scolorire – to discolor

Scolpire – to sculpt

Scoprire – to discover

Scucire – to unstitch

Scurire – to darken

Seguire – to follow

Sentire – to feel

Seppellire – to bury

Servire – to serve

Sfinire – to finish

Sfuggire – to escape

Sgualcire – to crumple

Smarrire – to lose

Smentire – to deny

Sminuire – to diminish

Soffrire – to suffer

Soppravenire – to forestall

Sostituire – to replace

Sparire – to disappear

Spaurire – to frighten

Spedire – to send

Stabilitire – to stabilize

Starnutire – to sneeze

Stordire – to stun

Stupire – to amaze

Subire – to undergo

Suggerire – to suggest

Susseguire – to follow on

Sveltire – to slim down

Svenire – to faint


Starting with T, U, V, & Z

Tossire – to cough

Tradire – to betray

Trasferire – to transfer

Trasgredire – to transgress

Travestire – to disguise

Ubbidire – to obey

Udire – to hear

Unire – to unite

Uscire – to go out

Usufruire – to enjoy

Venire – to come

Vestire – to dress

Zittire – to silence


If you want to see the others, check out this Italian resource.



Italian Ire Verbs Conjugation: Regular Verbs

Let’s conjugate the regular verb partire. You can use this regular conjugation model for other regular -ire verbs. In the next section, you’ll see examples for the most used tenses.

italian ire verb conjugation with regular verb partire

Scroll to the bottom to learn about irregular ire verbs.



Italian Ire Verbs Examples

Let’s look at how to conjugate 3 different verbs ending in -ire. One is regular, one takes the interfix -isc, and the other one is an irregular verb in multiple modes and tenses.

Partire (regular)

Capire (takes -isc)

Dire (irregular)


Presente (Present)

Luigi parte per l’università ogni mattina presto. (Luigi leaves for university every morning early.)

Noi capiamo il significato di questa parola. (We understand the meaning of this word.)

Lei dice sempre quello che pensa. (She always says what she thinks.)


Imperfetto (Imperfect)

Noi partivamo per le vacanze ogni estate. (We used to leave for vacation every summer.)

Voi capivate facilmente le istruzioni. (You all used to easily understand the instructions.)

Loro dicevano che non volevano venire alla festa. (They used to say they didn’t want to come to the party.)


Futuro (Future) 

Mario partirà per il viaggio di lavoro domani. (Mario will leave for the business trip tomorrow.)

Tu capirai la verità prima o poi. (You will understand the truth sooner or later.)

Lei dirà alla famiglia della sua decisione. (She will tell her family about her decision.)


Passato remoto (Historical Past)

Gli antichi romani partirono per conquistare nuove terre. (The ancient Romans left to conquer new lands.)

Ci dissero di non disturbarli durante il loro viaggio di nozze. (They told us not to disturb them during their honeymoon.)

Capirono finalmente l’importanza del gesto. (They finally understood the importance of the gesture.)


Passato prossimo (Present Perfect)

Sono partiti per le vacanze la scorsa settimana. (They left for vacation last week.)

Hai capito il compito di matematica? (Did you understand the math assignment?)

Ha detto che arriverà presto. (He said he would arrive soon.)


Condizionale (Conditional)

Se avessero più soldi, partirebbero per un lungo viaggio. (If they had more money, they would leave for a long journey.)

Forse, se ti spiegassi meglio, capiresti di più. (If I explained better, you would understand more.)

Se potessi, ti direi quanto ti amo ogni giorno. (If I could, I would tell you how much I love you every day.)



Irregular Ire Verbs

If you exclude the fact that certain third conjugation Italian ire verbs take the -isc interfix, then most of them are regular verbs.

About 30 IRE verbs have an irregular past participle. Examples of these are aperto (from aprire, to open), comparso (from comparire, to appear), and detto (from dire, to say).


These verbs are irregular in the Passato Remoto tense:

Aprire (to open) – io aprii, tu apristi, lui aprì, noi aprimmo, voi apriste, loro aprirono.

Coprire (to cover) – io coprii, tu copristi, lui coprì, noi coprimmo, voi copriste, loro coprirono.

Offrire (to offer) – io offrii, tu offristi, lui offrì, noi offrimmo, voi offriste, loro offrirono.


These verbs are irregular in multiple modes and tenses:

Apparire (to appear)

Dire (to say)

Morire (to die)

Salire (to go up)

Udire (to hear)

Uscire (to go out or get out)

Venire (to come)


Have a look at the conjugations for irregular verbs Venire and Uscire (coming soon).



Continue Learning The Italian Verbs

If you found this lesson useful, there are many more ones covering the verbs in Italian. Choose one from this list to continue learning.

Italian Are Verbs

Italian Ere Verbs

Essere Lesson

Avere Lesson

Italian Reflexive Verbs


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